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39th Anniversary of 16th May revolution



39th Anniversary of 16th May revolution.



By: John Kongor Thuou Deng.
(John Kong) :


The fall of relationship between the Islamic-North and Animist-Christian South :

The main purpose of writing this short note is to correspond with the memories of historical battles fought between the Islamic-North and the Christian South over decades in stages until the 16th, May, 1983 duplicated the serious war leading to the independence of the modern Republic of South Sudan on 9th, July, 2011.

The event which took place like the nightmare. During our suffering in war zone around 1990s, we didn’t knew that we would one day celebrates the birth of the land of Kush or Republic of South Sudan. Thank God, I witnessed the event. Thus the fruits of the modern state is not yet enjoy due to the reasons known by the most of our people.

The onset of the political consciousness in Southern Sudan can be traced back to the 18th, August, 1955, four months before the independence of the Republic of Sudan. The national unionist party (NUP) which was overwhelmingly dominated by the Muslim North, intrinsically involved in the political future of the country undermining the people in the South of the country within and after the transitional period ranging between 1953-1955. Although there appeared to be members in the transitional legislatures representating Southern Sudanese in the Assembly, but it was unfortunate that, our members in the Parliament were voiceless similarly like the barking dogs without teeth.

The speed of marginalisation started in different dimensional scales in my personal trajectories as enshrined below :

1- The British civil administration in Sudan during the transit era of their rule in Sudan, was immediately replaced by the successive and repressive Islamic fundamentslists in Sudan. About over 800 vacancies left by the colonial power, ony 06 junior administrative vacancies were given to South Sudanese. This marked the level of political differences between the Northern and Southern hegemony with unique religious fanatics. Sparked the first political atmosphere in the post independent period.

2- The political, religious, economics, social and cultural marginalisation among others were the key actors for the negligence of Nuba mountains, El-Funj and Southern Sudan. These neglected areas constitute the marginalised regions of New Sudan. You find here and there, the lack of basic social services in the whole of the independence period. Historians and political analysts had their own disputes on political angle of observation over the development of Sudan. Finally, they agreed that, the development was just based along the corridor conjunction of both the Blue and white Niles. Moreover, the extreme Eastern and Western regions of Sudan were least developed compared to the Southern region of Sudan. The minority Khartoum clique regime created economic classes in the country since the post independence era until the South Sudanese decided their political fate in 2011 through the right of self determination “referendum”. South Sudanese were sum under the category of “third class citizenship”. In my physical point of view during my visit to Northern Sudan at the present day Republic of Sudan in 2009-2010. I was like shedding tears actually, when seeing the miserable lives of South Sudanese in the slum/Ashanti areas of Mayo, Silma, Angola, Jabarona, Yarmok and many others estates around the glittering city of Khartoum. The point you practically understand the meaning of third class citizenship in your own home country. NB: To be brief and precise, the primary causes of the first civil conflict are identical to the genesis of 16th, May revolution. The first phase of the 17 year war fare reached the stalemate inform of Adis Ababa peaceaccord which granted the local autonomy to the people of South Sudan until 1982.

After the documentation of the Adis Ababa peace agreement, the defunct Sudanese military minded president Numeri behaved more than a mad dog and a woman that pledge for divorce. By any cost, he perpetuated the possible means to dismantle the agreement signed by the warring parties to the peace accord. The relationship between the Arab-North with the black African–South deteriorated more than the relationships of co.wives over disputed husband.

President Numeri had delegated Molana Abel Alier on behalf of the (NIF) nationalIslamic front, mean while the rebel leader, General Joseph Lagu was the signatory on behalf of of (SSLM) South Sudan liberation movement as the political wing of the Anya Anya1 movement. The formula was the fact of ” breaking the rock using another rock”.However, the policy of the Islamic North was actually to put Southern Sudanese in political delimma, maintain them in darkest level of marginalisation, Arabization and Islamization among others categories. Revival internal slave trade reached unprecedented fate. The agreement was dishonoured to the point of disrespect and of the recognition there lack off, made general Numeri to vomited the nasty statement, by saying “Adis Ababa peace accord was not neither Holy Koran nor Bible”. The statement which enraged Southern political and military elites to take Arms against the fundamentalists Islamic regime in Khartoum.

Until the beginning of 1980s, attacks and raids rampant in Dinka villages in the pherpery to the North, mainly in extreme parts of Greater Bahr El Ghazal and Upper Nile provinces. The attack which later culminated the whole of the South. More importantly, the Southern Sudanese plannedthe 16th, May, 1983 marked the firing of second bullet in history of rebellion in Southern Sudanese against the oppressive Islamic government in Khartoum. Bor town breath fire and vomited human blood, then the war escalated to different parts of the country.

Fierce battle sparked the political atmosphere in the country and shaked Gen. Mohammed Numeri in Khartoum, after he realised that, the top fierce and furious military officers at the top Kerubino Kuanyin Bol Deng, Dr John Garang and many other extravagant military experts and antagonists from Southern Sudan rebelled against the system of his government. Mobile 105 and 104 under the commend of Kerubino Kuanyin, popularly known “Ma’ngok” which literally means “the furious and extravagantofficer” terrorized Mading-Bor and later expelled by the government forces.

The beginning of second armed struggle commenced in Southern Sudan. The same scenario happened in Pibor, Pachella and Ayod battalions of 104 in June, 1983 under the commend of William Nyuon Beny Machar and others profound military officers among others emensly erupted with spirit of patriotism and and nationalism against the monolithic Islamic regime in Khartoum. Upper Nile became the war tone region in Southern Sudan. The gallant forces of the Sudan people liberation movement stroke Army converged in the swampy areas of Bilpam and Pinyido in Sudan-Ethiopians border. The second phrase of training and organization of the SPLM/A forces in Bilpam shall be published in the next articles.

The writer obtained bachelor of arts in education, department of geography and history respectively in the national University of Bahr el Ghazal. He is one of the SPLM outstanding cadres, columnist, commentator, moderator, analyst and renowned public speaker. He can be easily reached at yomadiang10@gmail.comContacts: +211920029981 /+211921631418 /+211916190191


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